This is in connection to the topic of Using Kubernetes with Juju. See that page for background information.
Juju is compatible with the MicroK8s project, which aims to provide "a full Kubernetes system in under 60 seconds". It is quite remarkable actually. It is composed of pure upstream binaries, runs all services natively (i.e. no virtual machines or containers), and is fully CNCF certified. This option is perfect for testing Kubernetes on your personal workstation. Using it with Juju is icing on the cake!
Since MicroK8s runs locally we'll be using a local LXD cloud to create a Juju controller.
This tutorial was written using MicroK8s
These instructions assume that you're using a fresh Ubuntu 18.04 LTS install, or at least one that is not already using either Juju or LXD. This tutorial installs Juju, LXD, and MicroK8s as snaps. It also removes a possibly existing LXD deb package. Do not invoke the purge command below if you're currently using LXD!
sudo snap install juju --classic sudo snap install lxd sudo snap install microk8s --classic sudo apt purge -y liblxc1 lxcfs lxd lxd-client
Let's see what's going on by using the
microk8s.kubectl get all --all-namespaces
Do not proceed until you see output similar to:
NAMESPACE NAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE default service/kubernetes ClusterIP 10.152.183.1 <none> 443/TCP 23m
Now enable some MicroK8s addons that will provide DNS and storage class support:
microk8s.enable dns storage
This will bring about changes to the cluster. Re-invoking the last command should eventually give you something like this:
NAMESPACE NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE kube-system pod/hostpath-provisioner-7d7c578f6b-rc6zz 1/1 Running 0 5m47s kube-system pod/kube-dns-67b548dcff-dlpgn 3/3 Running 0 5m53s NAMESPACE NAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE default service/kubernetes ClusterIP 10.152.183.1 <none> 443/TCP 23m kube-system service/kube-dns ClusterIP 10.152.183.10 <none> 53/UDP,53/TCP 5m53s NAMESPACE NAME DESIRED CURRENT UP-TO-DATE AVAILABLE AGE kube-system deployment.apps/hostpath-provisioner 1 1 1 1 5m47s kube-system deployment.apps/kube-dns 1 1 1 1 5m53s NAMESPACE NAME DESIRED CURRENT READY AGE kube-system replicaset.apps/hostpath-provisioner-7d7c578f6b 1 1 1 5m47s Kube-system replicaset.apps/kube-dns-67b548dcff 1 1 1 5m53s
Later we'll see how this output will change once a charm is deployed.
Juju always needs a controller as a central management machine. Once this machine is established all Juju-deployed applications will be contained within the Kubernetes cluster itself; Juju deployments will not cause LXD containers to be created.
So let's bring Juju into the picture by creating a controller now:
juju bootstrap localhost lxd
This will take about five minutes to finish. After which we'll have a controller called 'lxd' that is based on the 'localhost' cloud.
add-k8s command adds the new Kubernetes cluster to Juju's list of known
clouds. Here, we arbitrarily call the new cloud 'microk8s-cloud':
microk8s.config | juju add-k8s microk8s-cloud
Confirm this by running
At this point we have something interesting going on. The controller we created earlier is now atypically associated with two clouds: the 'localhost' cloud and the 'microk8s-cloud' cloud. So when we want to create a model we'll need explicitly state which cloud to place the new model in. We'll do this now by adding new model 'k8s-model' to cloud 'microk8s-cloud':
juju add-model k8s-model microk8s-cloud
The output to
juju models should now look very similar to:
Controller: lxd Model Cloud/Region Status Machines Access Last connection controller localhost/localhost available 1 admin just now default localhost/localhost available 0 admin 26 minutes ago k8s-model* microk8s-cloud available 0 admin never connected
One of the benefits of using MicroK8s is that we get dynamically provisioned storage out of the box. Below we create two storage pools, one for operator storage and one for charm storage:
juju create-storage-pool operator-storage kubernetes \ storage-class=microk8s-hostpath juju create-storage-pool mariadb-pv kubernetes \ storage-class=microk8s-hostpath
We can now deploy a Kubernetes charm. For example, here we deploy a charm by requesting the use of the 'mariadb-pv' charm storage pool we just set up:
juju deploy cs:~juju/mariadb-k8s --storage database=mariadb-pv,10M
The output to
juju status should soon look like the following:
Model Controller Cloud/Region Version SLA Timestamp k8s-model lxd microk8s-cloud 2.5-rc1 unsupported 18:55:56Z App Version Status Scale Charm Store Rev OS Address Notes mariadb-k8s active 1 mariadb-k8s jujucharms 13 kubernetes 10.152.183.209 Unit Workload Agent Address Ports Message mariadb-k8s/0* active idle 10.1.1.5 3306/TCP
In contrast to standard Juju behaviour, there are no machines listed here. Let's see what has happened within the cluster:
microk8s.kubectl get all --all-namespaces
New sample output:
NAMESPACE NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE k8s-model pod/juju-mariadb-k8s-0 1/1 Running 0 140m k8s-model pod/juju-operator-mariadb-k8s-0 1/1 Running 0 140m kube-system pod/hostpath-provisioner-7d7c578f6b-rc6zz 1/1 Running 0 3h19m kube-system pod/kube-dns-67b548dcff-dlpgn 3/3 Running 0 3h19m NAMESPACE NAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE default service/kubernetes ClusterIP 10.152.183.1 <none> 443/TCP 3h36m k8s-model service/juju-mariadb-k8s ClusterIP 10.152.183.209 <none> 3306/TCP 140m kube-system service/kube-dns ClusterIP 10.152.183.10 <none> 53/UDP,53/TCP 3h19m NAMESPACE NAME DESIRED CURRENT UP-TO-DATE AVAILABLE AGE kube-system deployment.apps/hostpath-provisioner 1 1 1 1 3h19m kube-system deployment.apps/kube-dns 1 1 1 1 3h19m NAMESPACE NAME DESIRED CURRENT READY AGE kube-system replicaset.apps/hostpath-provisioner-7d7c578f6b 1 1 1 3h19m kube-system replicaset.apps/kube-dns-67b548dcff 1 1 1 3h19m NAMESPACE NAME DESIRED CURRENT AGE k8s-model statefulset.apps/juju-mariadb-k8s 1 1 140m K8s-model statefulset.apps/juju-operator-mariadb-k8s 1 1 140m
You can easily identify the changes, as compared to the initial output, by scanning the left hand side for our model name 'k8s-model', which ends up being the Kubernetes "namespace".
To get information on pod 'juju-mariadb-k8s-0' you need to refer to the namespace (since it's not the 'default' namespace) in this way:
microk8s.kubectl describe pods -n k8s-model juju-mariadb-k8s-0
The output is too voluminous to include here. See the upstream documentation on different ways of viewing cluster information.
To remove all traces of what we've done in this tutorial use the following commands:
juju kill-controller -y -t 0 lxd juju remove-cloud microk8s-cloud microk8s.reset sudo snap remove microk8s sudo snap remove lxd sudo snap remove juju
That's the end of this tutorial!
Consider the following tutorials:
To gain experience with a standalone (non-Juju) MicroK8s installation check out Ubuntu tutorial Install a local Kubernetes with MicroK8s.