Deploying applications - advanced

This page is dedicated to more advanced topics related to deploying applications with Juju. The main page is Deploying applications.

Topics covered here are:

  • Multi-series charms
  • Deploying to specific machines
  • Deploying to spaces

Multi-series charms

Charms can be created that support more than one release of a given operating system distro, such as the multiple Ubuntu releases shown below. It is not possible to create a charm to support multiple distros, such as one charm for both Ubuntu and CentOS. Supported series are added to the charm metadata like this:

name: mycharm
summary: "Great software"
description: It works
maintainer: Some One <>
   - databases
   - trusty
   - xenial
     interface: pgsql
     interface: syslog

The default series for the charm is the first one listed. So, in this example, to deploy mycharm on trusty, all you need is:

juju deploy mycharm

You can specify a different series using the --series flag:

juju deploy mycharm --series xenial

You can force the charm to deploy using an unsupported series using the --force flag:

juju deploy mycharm --series bionic --force

Here is a more complete example showing a new machine being added that uses a different series than is supported by our mycharm example and then forcing the charm to install:

juju add-machine --series bionic
juju deploy mycharm --to 1 --series  bionic --force

Multi-series charms may encounter upgrade difficulties if support for the installed series is dropped. See Forced upgrades for details.

Deploying to specific machines

To deploy to specific machines the --to option is used. It is supported by commands bootstrap, deploy, and add-unit.

The argument to the --to option is called a placement directive.

When this option is used, unless the machine was created via add-machine, a charm has already been deployed to the machine. When multiple charms are deployed to the same machine there exists the chance of conflicting configuration files (on the machine's filesystem).

To apply this option towards an existing Juju machine, the machine ID is used. This is an integer that is shown in the output to juju status (or juju machines). For example, this partial output shows a machine with an ID of '2':

Machine  State    DNS           Inst id        Series  AZ  Message
2        started  juju-79b3aa-0  xenial      Running

The above works well with deploy and add-unit as will be shown below. As for bootstrap the --to option is limited to pointing to a MAAS node. Assuming a MAAS cloud has been added and is called 'maas-prod' you can therefore do this:

juju bootstrap maas-prod --to <host>.maas

deploy --to

To deploy the 'haproxy' application to machine '2' we would do this:

juju deploy --to 2 haproxy

Below, the --constraints option is used during controller creation to ensure that each workload machine will have enough memory to run multiple applications. MySQL is deployed as the first unit (in the 'default' model) and so ends up on machine '0'. Then Rabbitmq gets deployed to the same machine:

juju bootstrap --constraints mem=4G localhost lxd
juju deploy mysql
juju deploy --to 0 rabbitmq-server

Juju treats a container like any other machine so it is possible to target specific containers as well. Here we deploy to containers in three different ways:

juju deploy mariadb --to lxd
juju deploy mongodb --to lxd:25
juju deploy nginx --to 24/lxd/3

In the first case, mariadb is deployed to a container on a new machine. In the second case, MongoDB is deployed to a new container on existing machine '25'. In the third case, nginx is deployed to existing container '3' on existing machine '24'.

Some clouds support special arguments to the --to option, where instead of a machine you can specify a zone or, in the case of MAAS, an underlying physical (or virtual) machine:

juju deploy mysql --to zone=us-east-1a
juju deploy mediawiki --to host.mass

add-unit --to

To add a unit of 'rabbitmq-server' to machine '1':

juju add-unit --to 1 rabbitmq-server

A comma separated list of directives can be provided to cater for the case where more than one unit is being added:

juju add-unit rabbitmq-server -n 4 --to zone=us-west-1a,zone=us-east-1b
juju add-unit rabbitmq-server -n 3 --to host1.maas,host2.maas,host3.maas

If the number of values is less than the number of requested units the remaining units, as per normal behaviour, will be deployed to new machines. Any surplus values are ignored.

The add-unit command is often associated with scaling out. See the Scaling applications page for information on that topic.

Deploying to network spaces

Using spaces, the operator is able to create a more restricted network topology for applications at deployment time (see Network spaces for details on spaces). This is achieved with the use of the --bind option.

The following will deploy the 'mysql' application to the 'db-space' space:

juju deploy mysql --bind db-space

For finer control, individual endpoints can be connected to specific spaces:

juju deploy --bind "db=db-space db-admin=admin-space" mysql

If a space is mentioned that is not associated with an interface then it will act as the default space (i.e. will be used for any unspecified interface):

juju deploy --bind "default-space db=db-space db-admin=admin-space" mysql

See Concepts and terms for the definition of an endpoint, an interface, and other closely related terms.

For information on applying bindings to bundles, see Binding endpoints within a bundle.

The deploy command also allows for the specification of a constraint. Here is an example of doing this with spaces:

juju deploy mysql -n 2 --constraints spaces=database

See Adding a machine with constraints for an example of doing this with spaces.

You can also declare an endpoint for spaces that is not used with relations, see Extra-bindings.

Spaces example

This example will have MAAS as the backing cloud and use the following criteria:

  • DMZ space (with 2 subnets, one in each zone), hosting 2 units of the haproxy application, which is exposed and provides access to the CMS application behind it.
  • CMS space (also with 2 subnets, one per zone), hosting 2 units of mediawiki, accessible only via haproxy (not exposed).
  • Database (again, 2 subnets, one per zone), hosting 2 units of mysql, providing the database backend for mediawiki.

First, ensure MAAS has the necessary subnets and spaces. Each subnet has the "automatic public IP address" attribute enabled on each:

  •, for space "database"
  •, for space "database"
  •, for space "cms"
  •, for space "cms"
  •, for the "dmz" space
  •, for the "dmz" space

Recall that MAAS has native knowledge of spaces. They are created within MAAS and Juju will become aware of them when the Juju controller is built (juju bootstrap).

Second, add the MAAS cloud to Juju. See Using a MAAS cloud for guidance.

Third, create the Juju controller, assuming a cloud name of 'maas-cloud':

juju bootstrap maas-cloud

Finally, deploy the applications into their respective spaces (here we use the constraints method), relate them, and expose haproxy:

juju deploy haproxy -n 2 --constraints spaces=dmz
juju deploy mediawiki -n 2 --constraints spaces=cms
juju deploy mysql -n 2 --constraints spaces=database
juju add-relation haproxy mediawiki
juju add-relation mediawiki mysql
juju expose haproxy

Once all the units are up, you will be able to get the public IP address of one of the haproxy units (from juju status), and open it in a browser, seeing the mediawiki page.

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